1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
1:2 And the earth was waste and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God 1moved upon the face of the waters.
1Or, was brooding upon the surface of the waters.

1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.2
2In each creative epoch there is first a command, or declaration of intention, followed by a confirmation of what was accomplished. (But see vss. 26-27 for a partial exception.) It may be inferred here that the atmosphere had been still too dense for sunlight to penetrate to the Earth’s surface, but not so hot as to be self-luminous (i.e., <700°C).

1:4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.3
3Or, Day one. or, a first day. Each day is reckoned as beginning and ending at noon, i.e., at its brightest, whether it be taken as literal or symbolic.

1:6 And God said, Let there be a 4sky in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.
4Lit. expanse of air

1:7 And God made the sky, and divided the waters which are under the sky from the waters which are above the sky:5 and it was so.
5It is to be inferred that previously the atmospheric pressure at the solid surface of earth had not decreased to the critical pressure of water; so no vapor/liquid interface could form. (At the critical point of water the pressure, temperature, and density are: 22.06 MPa, 374°C, and 0.4 gm/cm3.)

1:8 And God called the sky Heavens. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.
1:9 And God said, Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.6
6This statement could be considered the first expression of one original continent, Pan-gea, and the theory of subsequent continental drift.

1:10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.
1:11 And God said, Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit-trees bearing fruit after their kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth: and it was so.
1:12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after their kind: and God saw that it was good.
1:13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.
1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the sky of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs,7 and for seasons, and for 8days and years:
7If this is the first mention of the reckoning of the signs of the Zodiac (Hb. Mazzaroth), it antedates the Babylonian concept by at least 17 centuries. If the Zodiac were first reckoned when the Sun at the summer solstice was in the 1st degree of Virgo, it would have been in the range BC 4300-4011, a little earlier than the Ussher chronology, which would place the creation of man at BC 4004.
8Hb. םוי yom, day; the same word as in vs. 19. Yet there is an implied distinction between these days and the creative days.


1:15 and let them be for lights in the sky of the heavens to give light upon the earth: and it was so.
1:16 And God made the two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.9
9The characteristic optical-scattering depth of air is 102 (violet, at 0.4μm) to 103 (deep red, at 0.7 μm) gmol/cm2. If the appearance of Sun, Moon and stars resulted from escape of hydrogen from the Earth’s atmosphere, the corresponding difference in surface pressures would have been only from about 3 to 2 kg/cm2 (0.3-0.2 MPa). The pressure reduction from unresolvable, to a blurred red Sun and Moon, to fully visible Sun, Moon and stars would be approximately 1 to 0.2 to 0.11 MPa. [Rayleigh scattering cross-sections are 1.7°10-26 to 1.7° 10-27 cm2/molecule (0.4 to 0.7 μm). Standard surface conditions today are 0.101325 MPa, 35 gmol/cm2, 15°C, and 1.225 mg/cm3.]

1:17 And God set them in the sky of the heavens to give light upon the earth,
1:18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.
1:19 And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.
1:20 And God said, 10Let the waters swarm with swarms of 11living souls, and let birds fly above the earth 12in the open sky of the heavens.
10Attempts to explain the origin of life without a creator are failing. Evolution Theory has changed twice in a century and now looks similar to Creation Theory. Even so, physical features and DNA would require contradictory evolutionary trees.
11Or, living creatures, And similarly in vss. 21 and 24
12Hb. on the face of the expanse of the heavens.


1:21 And God created 13the great sea-monsters, and every living soul that moveth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after their kind, and every winged bird after its kind:14 and God saw that it was good.
13Quite possibly including the dinosaurs.
14After the herbs and trees had converted CO2 to O2 in the 3rd period, and the atmospheric composition had been stabilized in the 4th period, animate life could be created and sustained.


1:22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let the birds multiply on the earth.
1:23 And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.
1:24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living soul after its kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind: and it was so.
1:25 And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creepeth upon the ground after its kind: and God saw that it was good.
1:26 And 15God said, Let us make 16man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the heavens, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
15Note: God (Elohim, plural) said (singular) Let us (plural)… The singular verb with a plural subject may be used to express that the plural individuals work in full harmony.
16Lit. Adam [red earth] Also in vs. 27.


1:27 And God created the man in his own image, in the image of God created he him;17 male and female created he them.18
17From the absence of mention that God also created man after our likeness one may infer that it was not then accomplished but remained for the future; similarly for the command about dominion. [But see ch. 5:1.]
18DNA measurements imply all women in the world are descended from a common female ancestor, and all men in the world are descended from a common male ancestor. Rebecca Cann, et. al., Nature 325, p. 31-36 (1Jan 1987); and Robert L. Dorit, et. al., Science 268, p. 1183-1185 (26 May 1995), including footnote 15.


1:28 And God blessed them: and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the heavens, and over every living thing that 19moveth upon the earth.
19Or, creepeth

1:29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for food:
1:30 and to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the heavens, and to everything that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, I have given every green herb for food: and it was so.
1:31 And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.