When God created Adam, God first formed Adam’s body, then breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. Adam became a living soul. (Genesis 2:7) He did not receive a soul. Additionally, souls die – they are not immortal. “The soul that sins, it shall die,” Ezekiel 18:4. The Bible does not teach transmigration of the soul or spirit.
The Bible says that everyone is guaranteed a second life (but not more than that) because of the atoning death of God’s son, Jesus Christ. 1 Corinthians 15:21-22, “For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.” The resurrection brings us back as the same person we were, not as another person or different form of life.
The purpose of this second life is to teach us God’s righteous law and to give us the opportunity to gain eternal life. It will be hard to learn righteousness if a person has lived an evil life. However, for those who have lived good lives, learning to live in love and justice will be easier. So what we do in this life matters. But everyone will have a full opportunity to reform their lives and attain eternal life. While this is similar to the concept of “karma,” that word and concept is not found in the Bible.
This death and resurrection doctrine is also taught in Hebrews 9:27-28: “…Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.” Coming back to life multiple times nullifies the work of Jesus as a Savior, as presented in the Bible.