While Israel was journeying through the wilderness, God never left their side. He protected and provided for them the entire time. As the Israelites left Egypt, God began to lead the nation with a cloud pillar during the day and pillar of fire by night (Exodus 13:21). These served to navigate Israel through the wilderness so that God could keep them protected whenever necessary.

God’s provisions included all the necessary sustenance (both food and water) Israel would need during their 40 year sojourn through the wilderness. Exodus 16:12-15 shows that God did this in the form of manna and quail. In Exodus 15:25, God gave the Israelites clean water to drink. 

Another provision from the Lord was the tabernacle itself, which represented the cleansing of the Israelites for their sins through offerings to God (see Exodus chapters 25-40). While the Tabernacle is important in understanding the Jewish people and their relationship with God, it is a far deeper topic than can be explained in this question. You may consider looking into Tabernacle Shadows of the “Better Sacrifices” by C.T. Russell (Free download available through Google.)

God also gave the Israelites the Law, including the Ten Commandments (Exodus 5:6-21).  On the surface, it may seem like this was a long list of unnecessary rules for the Israelites to obey, but in reality, the guidelines in the Law provided them with advantages not only in morality, but also in health. God used the Law as a provision to keep the Israelites in good moral standing in mind, and healthy, strong, and free from disease in body.

Finally, God protected them from their enemies. Exodus 17:8-13 gives a specific example of God’s protection from their enemies the Amalekites.

The Lord provided for the Israelites both physically and spiritually while they wandered in the wilderness, and He was sure to give them everything that they needed to survive.