Let's start by defining heaven. In scripture, heaven can be represented literally or symbolically. Literally it can mean the sky or atmosphere around earth, the visible universe (stars, etc.) or it can mean the abode of God. Symbolically it can mean the religious powers here on earth. For the purpose of your question, we will assume that you mean the abode of God. So if we may rephrase the question to be more specific, we assume you are asking: After death on earth, are all people resurrected to live with God in Heaven?
We answer that the scriptures indicate a resurrection for all of Adam's race, but not necessarily a heavenly resurrection. There are several points identified in scripture, that when taken together show the beautiful plan of God for all mankind. We will address the individual points here, the pull them all together at the end.
1. Let's recall our Lord's prayer in Matthew 6:9-10. Jesus tells us to pray for God's will to be done ON EARTH as it is IN HEAVEN. Why would Jesus tell us to pray for God's will to be done on earth if earth will always be a place of sin and death? We see a future time when God's will shall be done on earth.
2. Who opened the way to heaven? It was Jesus.
John 14:6 "Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me."
John 3:13 "And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven."
These scriptures show that no man can get to heaven and be with the Father except they come by Jesus; and that no man before Jesus had gone to heaven – not Abraham, not Moses, not David, not Daniel; none of God's chosen and faithful servants who lived BEFORE Jesus are in heaven with the Father. Hebrews 11 lists more of the faithful servants of God from before Jesus' day, and verse 13 says "These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth."
3. How did God open the way to Heaven through Jesus? It was through Jesus’ death and resurrection. Jesus came to earth and became flesh so that He could pay the ransom price for Adam, and for all that were born in Adam.
1 Corinthians 15:22 "For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive."
Romans 5:18-19 "Therefore as by the offense of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous."
Adam, created perfect, sinned and as a result he and all his children die. Jesus, created perfect, committed NO sin, but gave his life willingly as a sacrifice, and by doing so cancelled out the sin of Adam and therefore all born in him. God's simple justice, a life for a life, has given the opportunity FOR ALL to have another chance at life.
4. If all have another chance at life, is that life in heaven? No, the chance at life in heaven is a special calling, only open to those who will sacrifice their right to life on earth in order to be with Jesus, their bridegroom, in Heaven.
Phil 3:13-14 "Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended: but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus."
2Tim2:10-12 "Therefore I endure all things for the elect’s sakes, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory. It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him: If we suffer, we shall also reign with him: if we deny him, he also will deny us:"
Revelation 20:6 "Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years."
Each of these scriptures indicate that being with Jesus in Heaven is not automatic. The Apostle Paul at one point wasn’t sure he had attained the 'prize of the high calling'. Reigning with Jesus is conditional. If we be dead with Him (sacrifice our life as He did) we shall also live with Him. If we suffer (persecution for doing God's will) with Him, we shall also reign with Him.
5. If not everyone goes to heaven, where do they go? As we stated earlier, Jesus taught us to pray for God's will to be done on earth. We also stated that Jesus paid the ransom price for Adam, and all those who were once dead in Adam have the opportunity to live as Adam once did before sin. Adam was never offered an opportunity to live in Heaven. His conditions for eternal life in the garden of Eden was to obey God's commandment and not eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. As long as Adam obeyed that commandment, he would live (on earth). This is the life that Jesus bought, perfect life on earth. Everyone born in Adam will have a second chance at attaining this perfect life. The special "high" calling is only open to those who forfeit this right to life on earth and give it in sacrifice to God, as Jesus did.
Rom 12:1-2 "I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is your reasonable service. And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God."
There are many more aspects to this plan that can be discussed, but hopefully this explanation answers the original question. In summary, Adam was guaranteed eternal life on earth as long as he obeyed God. When he disobeyed, he and all that were born in him were under the death penalty. Jesus came in the flesh and gave His perfect life to pay the price for Adam's sin, and as a result Adam and his race will have another opportunity for perfect life on earth. Jesus is also looking for a bride to be joint-heirs with Him, so God put forth a special calling through Jesus that those who willingly partake of Jesus' sufferings for doing God's will, may also have the opportunity to live and reign with Him in Heaven. Those who are not called, or do not answer the call will have the opportunity of life on earth.