There is nothing in the Bible that prohibits us from using contraception. Contraception refers to methods and technologies that are intended to prevent conception. Methods can include: abstinence, rhythm or calendar methods, withdrawal, barrier methods (condoms, spermicide, diaphragms), sterilization, implants & injections (IUD), the pill, morning after pills. (Procedures, which destroy a growing fetus are abortion, and are not discussed here.)
The motivation behind the contraception should be examined to determine why there is not a desire for children at this particular time. Genesis 1:28 tells us that we are to “be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth”. That directive from God to our parents was for that time on a new earth. However, as centuries have passed, the earth has become quite populated, so Genesis 1:28 might not necessarily apply any more. The timing or the economics of having a child might not be “right”. Each family/couple needs to determine this for themselves.
The Apostle Paul said a husband and wife can refrain from sex by mutual consent, certainly a form of birth control, so that they can fast or pray (1 Corinthians 7:1-6). However, each mate must not cheat the other to fulfill their own sexual needs. If both love each other, they will try to keep each other content sexually. They can also decide, out of love, to have sex but not have it lead to bringing children into the world, meaning that the act can strictly be enjoyed for pleasure within a marriage. One mate should not take advantage of the other or use abstaining as a weapon. There needs to be open communication on the subject.
God made the fertility cycle in a woman whereby she can only become pregnant when she ovulates. God therefore gives us an example of the physical control of birth (she can only get pregnant at certain times of the month). Economics could be a reason not to have sex or use birth control because one cannot afford to support any children or any additional children. This does not mean not having any sex, as that could tempt a person toward adultery, which is sinful (1 Corinthians 7:9). Therefore, preventing pregnancy through certain methods is permitted if doing so is the best for the family and is based on love.
Most often, a wife is the one in whose body contraceptive and reproductive decisions are carried out, in a way that husbands will not. The husband, therefore, has the responsibility to hear, receive, and weigh his wife’s thoughts with love and compassion.