Genesis 27:40 (NASB): “And by your sword you shall live, and your brother you shall serve; but it shall come about when you become restless, that you shall break his yoke from your neck.”
Though Esau was not personally subject to his brother, Jacob, as intimated in Isaac’s blessing, his descendants, Edom, were tributary to the Israelites through Judah. The Edomites were of a fierce and warlike disposition, gaining their living by hunting and by predatory excursions upon the possessions of others. They lived “by the sword”, and eventually gained possession of Mount Seir by force.
Constantly at war with the Jews, they were conquered by Saul and subdued by David who imposed the yoke. They revolted and finally broke their yoke and gained their independence in the reign of King Joram (Jehoram) (2 Kings 8:20; 2 Chronicles 21:8-10). Certainly the yoke ended when Judah was taken into captivity in Babylon and was no longer present in the land. Today Esau or Edom comprises the southern third of Jordan, while Moab and Ammon form the other two thirds. Clearly Jordan is not at present, nor has been for a long time, dominated by Jacob’s family tree – the nation of Israel.