Few details concerning Molech can be found in the biblical account. The Decalogue given to Israel at Mount Sinai declared “Thou shalt have no other gods before me”, and “You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything…” They were commanded not to make gods of silver or gold (Exodus 20:23) and worship God alone.
Secular sources explain that Molech aka Moloch was an ancient near Eastern (Ammonite) deity who was worshipped by the Canaanites, Phoenicians. Some sources suggest that Molech was associated with the Babylonian god of the sun; others that it is another name for Baal; still others suggest that Molech was a rebellious angel. Some authorities regard “Molech” as a title that could refer to more than one idol or that it is possibly just another name for human sacrifice. The Semitic root of the word can also mean king. In the Hebrew language, the vowels connote shame or something abhorrent.
In Leviticus 18:21, the Israelites were told not to give any of their children in sacrifice, or allow them to “pass through the fire” thereby dedicating them to the service of Molech. In Leviticus 20:2-5, God decreed that anyone who gave any of his children to Molech must be stoned to death as punishment. (See Deuteronomy 12:31 and 18:10-13)
King Solomon (1 Kings 11:7), under the influence of his foreign wives, built “high places” for the worship of Molech and other idols. Evil Kings of Judah- Ahaz and Manasseh (2 Kings Chapters 16 &21) even sacrificed their own sons in the fire to Molech. King Josiah established religious reforms and destroyed their “high places”–(“Topheth” in the valley of Hinnom) so no one could use the place of burning to sacrifice their sons or daughters to Molech (2 Kings 23:10). Isaiah 30:33 described “Topheth” as a deep, wide, fire pit. In Jeremiah 32:25, the sacrifice of Israel’s sons and daughters to Molech is declared a “detestable thing”. Jeremiah 17:31 predicted that the land of Israel would become desolate because of the sacrifice of their children. In Jeremiah 49:1 we learn that the tribe of Gad was overtaken by the Molech worshipping Ammonites. Ezekiel 20 confirms that the people of Israel turned away from God and defiled themselves. Zephaniah (1:5) continues a warning of destruction promising
In the Septuagint translation, Amos 5:26 refers to God’s continuing anger with Israel because they “lifted up the shrine of Molech”. Steven’s speech to the Sanhedrin in Acts 7:43 reviewed that the Babylonian exile was a consequence of Molech worship. Psalms 106 provides a historical summary about how Israel had sacrificed their children to demons and were oppressed by their enemies. It appears that the experience had some effect – the post exilic prophets do not refer to Molech worship.
In most fiction and Greek historical accounts, the image of Molech was a human with a bull's head and outstretched arms, ready to receive children for sacrifice. The metal idol was heated by a fire within and the children laid on its arms were consumed in a fiery pit below. Leviticus 17:7 also mentions “goat idols” to which the Israelites were “prostituting themselves”.
In considering who or what Molech was, the message that he should not be worshipped is clear.