It is the body of laws encompassed in the Law Covenant which do apply to Christians. The Law Covenant was made between God and Israel only. In the early church, Jews who became Christians were confused as to whether they still needed to keep the Law. The Apostle Paul told them that Jesus fulfilled the Law and therefore, they (Jewish Christians) no longer needed to abide by its ordinances. (See Colossians 2:14.)
Otherwise, Christians should definitely respect and obey the laws of the nations. Romans 13:1-5: “Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment.
For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you have no fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what is good, and you will receive his approval, for he is God’s servant for your good…Therefore one must be in subjection, not only to avoid God’s wrath but also for the sake of conscience.”
Disobedience is only permissible when a government’s laws conflict with God’s laws. For example, Peter and the apostles were ordered not to preach about Jesus. These brave believers chose to disobey that command, and they continued to proclaim the good news. Acts 5:27-29, “And when they had brought them, they set them before the council. And the high priest questioned them, saying, ‘We strictly charged you not to teach in this name, yet here you have filled Jerusalem with your teaching, and you intend to bring this man’s blood upon us.’
But Peter and the apostles answered, ‘We must obey God rather than men.’”