Solomon used God's wisdom to understand the natural world.  1 Kings 4:29-34 (NIV), “God gave Solomon wisdom and very great insight,…He was wiser than anyone else,…And his fame spread to all the surrounding nations. He spoke three thousand proverbs and his songs numbered a thousand and five. He spoke about plant life, from the cedar of Lebanon to the hyssop that grows out of walls. He also spoke about animals and birds, reptiles and fish. From all nations, people came to listen to Solomon's wisdom, sent by all the kings of the world…” 

He also applied this wisdom to his reign. The people of Israel prospered and were happy under Solomon. In fact, surrounding nations enjoyed prosperity as well. 1 Kings 4:20-21 (NIV), “The people of Judah and Israel were as numerous as the sand on the seashore; they ate, they drank and they were happy. And Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the Euphrates River to the land of the Philistines, as far as the border of Egypt. These countries brought tribute and were Solomon's subjects all his life.”

Sadly, he did not apply it to his personal life. He built altars to pagan idols. Solomon knew this was a sin, and God said He would punish him by taking most of the nation of Israel from his son, Rehoboam.

1 Kings 11:3-13 (NKJV), “And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines; and his wives turned away his heart…his heart was not loyal to the LORD his God…For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. Solomon did evil in the sight of the LORD, and did not fully follow the LORD, as did his father David. Then Solomon built a high place for Chemosh the abomination of Moab,…and for Molech (infants were sacrificed to Molech) the abomination of the people of Ammon…So the LORD became angry with Solomon, because his heart had turned from the LORD God of Israel,…Therefore the LORD said to Solomon, "Because you have done this, and have not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant. "Nevertheless I will not do it in your days, for the sake of your father David; I will tear it out of the hand of your son. However I will not tear away the whole kingdom; I will give one tribe to your son for the sake of My servant David, and for the sake of Jerusalem which I have chosen.”

This prophecy was fulfilled in 1 Kings 12:20, 24 (NKJV), “…There was none who followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only…Thus says the LORD: …this thing is from Me.” 1 Kings 12:23-24 (NKJV).