There are three scriptures which use the word propitiation (in the King James Version), all of which say that Jesus is the propitiation (not the Holy Spirit) for the sins of the world.
Romans 3:24,25 "Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus: Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood…”
1John 2:2 "And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world."
1John 4:10 "Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.”
The New American Standard version uses propitiation in an additional verse. Hebrews 2:17 "Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people."
Jesus did say the Holy Spirit would be sent as a Comforter, or Helper (John 14:26, 15:26, 16:7,13). In the context of these scriptures, the work of the Holy Spirit as a Helper is defined as bringing to mind what Jesus taught, and using those lessons to guide us into the truth. In other words, when we study the Bible, the Holy Spirit brings the scriptures to mind and helps put them together so that they harmonize and teach us the truth.
In the Old Testament, God specially gave certain people special talents (Exodus 31:2-5), the power to work miracles, and prophetic insight into the future. The Holy Spirit was God’s power in action, working through them.
The difference in the New Testament, is that Christians are begotten of God’s spirit to a new nature. In John 3, Jesus tells Nicodemus about being born of the spirit. When one is born of the spirit, they can come and go like the wind with a spirit body (John 3:8). This will happen after death when they are resurrected. In this lifetime, Christians are begotten of the spirit as New Creatures (2 Corinthians 5:17). Those who are faithful will be born as heavenly, spirit beings after they die. The Holy Spirit is given to us as a pledge of our inheritance (Ephesians 1:13,14).
So, while the Holy Spirit is the same in the Old and New Testament, there is a difference in its actions:
· In the Old Testament, the Holy Spirit gave power to specific people to serve God with talents, miracles, and prophecies.
· In the New Testament, the Holy Spirit begets Christians to a spirit nature and guides Christians to understand the deep things of God.