No, being filled with the Holy Spirit is not the same as speaking in tongues.  Remember when Jesus was baptized? (Matt. 3:13-17)  When John brought him up out of the water, the heavens opened and he saw the spirit of God coming down like a dove upon him.  Jesus did not speak in tongues.  He spoke plainly so that everyone could understand him.

The first time we hear about different tongues in the Bible is in Genesis. 11.  Verse 1 states that the whole earth had one language.  Verse 7 states that God was not happy with the people trying to build a tower (of Babel) to heaven so he caused the people to “make a babble of their language”.

In Acts 2 when the Holy Spirit comes upon those gathered for Pentecost, the Lord gave gifts to the apostles and to the remainder of the church through them the ability to speak in other languages (they were all Galileans and therefore only spoke one dialect or language).  They spoke in various languages so that the people of the countries represented by those languages understood clearly, since the Apostles did not know their languages.  God’s purpose in giving Jesus’ disciples the Holy Spirit was to enable them to understand His Word and to have the strength to live their lives according to His Word— “But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come.” (John 16:13 NIV)  The gifts of the Holy Spirit were represented in the ability to speak with various tongues and in power to perform miracles—heal the sick, etc.  Those miraculous powers were necessary for the spreading of the Gospel to people of other nations and the establishment of the church. But they must have all expired when the apostles died – because only the apostles were able to bestow these gifts upon others.

There are some people that will tell you that they can speak in tongues or people that will tell you they have heard others speak in tongues.  You need to ask why this would be important.  The Scriptures tell us that speaking in tongues is not for the hearers of the person, but for the purpose of God hearing the person.  (I Cor. 14:2-4)  I learned of one person, who was listening to another speaking in tongues, who was able to understand what the speaker was saying.  He said that the speaker was speaking the most vile German he had heard in a long time.  Obviously, this speaker did not have the Holy Spirit (at least at the time that he was “speaking in tongues”.  Opening yourself up to wanting to speak in tongues may be allowing evil spirits or the fallen angels, to take control of one’s thinking (and maybe mouth).  I John 4:1 says “Do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see if they come from God; for many false prophets have emerged in the world.” 

When we consecrate ourselves to God; we find ourselves led by the spirit and guided into the truth day by day.  “We have not received the spirit of the world but the Spirit who is from God, that we may understand what God has freely given us. This is what we speak, not in words taught us by human wisdom but in words taught by the Spirit, expressing spiritual truths in spiritual words.   The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned.” (1 Corinthians 2:12-14 NIV)  “Follow the way of love and eagerly desire spiritual gifts, especially the gift of prophecy. For anyone who speaks in a tongue does not speak to men but to God. Indeed, no one understands him; he utters mysteries with his spirit.   But everyone who prophesies speaks to men for their strengthening, encouragement and comfort. He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself, but he who prophesies edifies the church. I would like every one of you to speak in tongues, but I would rather have you prophesy. He who prophesies is greater than one who speaks in tongues, unless he interprets, so that the church may be edified.” (1 Corinthians 14:1-5 NIV)  “Prophecy” here has the meaning of “speak under divine inspiration,” which in its simplest form is one who is teaching from God’s Word—the Bible.  The Apostle Paul clearly states that one who is speaking or teaching from God’s Word

[in the language of the listeners] is greater than one who speaks in an unknown or foreign language.

“Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles? Do all have gifts of healing? Do all speak in tongues? Do all interpret? But eagerly desire the greater gifts. And now I will show you the most excellent way. If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. … Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. For we know in part and we prophesy in part, but when perfection [agape love] comes, the imperfect [miraculous gifts] disappears. … And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.” (1 Corinthians 12:29-13:1; 13:8-10, 13 NIV)